Centre for Internal Medicine

Overview

Internists are the physicians who are the primary co-ordinators of the patients who require multidisciplinary approach. An internist has the widest vision to address the problems of human body and this is the patient branch of medicine from which the other skills of superspeciality in medicine arise.

We at Sarvodaya are having a clinically competent and patient responsive team of doctors, nurses and paramedics to look after the patients well-being. An attempt is always made to utilize our clinical skills which has a strong barring of cross departmental consults and investigations support from laboratory, Imaging and other specialty diagnosis.

Internists are the physicians who are the primary coordinators of the patients who require multidisciplinary approach. An internist has the widest vision to address the problems of human body and this is the patient branch of medicine from which the other skills of superspeciality in medicine arise.

We at Sarvodaya are having a clinically competent and patient responsive team of doctors, nurses and paramedics to look after the patient’s well-being. An attempt is always made to utilize our clinical skills which has a strong barring of cross departmental consults and investigations support from laboratory, Imaging and other specialty diagnosis.

Services

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES

The immune system is a collection of special cells and chemicals that fight infection-causing agents such as bacteria and viruses. An autoimmune disorder occurs when a person's immune system mistakenly attacks their own body tissues like the skin or joints— as foreign. This causes it to release proteins known as auto antibodies which attack the healthy cells. Autoimmune disorders are broadly grouped into two categories – 'organ-specific' means one organ is affected, while in 'non-organ-specific' disorders, multiple organs or body systems may be affected.

There are around 80 different autoimmune disorders ranging in severity from mild to disabling, depending on which system of the body is under attack and to what degree. For unknown reasons, women are more susceptible than men, particularly during their childbearing years. It is thought that sex hormones may be at least partly responsible. There is generally no cure, but the symptoms of autoimmune disorders can be managed.

Symptoms

  • Muscle pain, joint pain or weakness

  • Insomnia, weight loss, heat intolerance or rapid heartbeat

  • Recurrent rashes or hives, sun-sensitivity, a butterfly-shaped rash across the nose and cheeks

  • Hair loss or white patches on the skin or inside the mouth

  • Dry mouth, eyes or skin

  • Tingling in the feet or hands and numbness

  • Difficulty in concentrating

  • Abdominal pain, blood or mucus in the stool, or diarrhoea

  • Mouth ulcers

  • Blood clots

  • Multiple miscarriages

Causes

The exact cause of autoimmune disease is not known, although there exist many theories about what leads to the malfunction.

  • Environmental irritants

  • Bacteria or virus

  • Chemical irritants

  • Drugs

It has also been seen that autoimmune disorders mostly run in families and are most likely to happen in women.

Treatment Options

Treatments cannot cure autoimmune disorders, but they can regulate the overactive immune response. Some medications used to treat these disorders include:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as naproxen (Naprosyn) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)

  • Immune-suppressing drugs

  • Treatments also exist to cure symptoms like skin rashes, pain, swelling, and fatigue. Furthermore, exercising regularly and eating a well-balanced dietcan also help the patient feel better.

CYSTIC FIBROSIS

Cystic fibrosis is an inherited illness that leads to severe damage to the lungs, sinuses intestinal tract, pancreas and other body parts. Commonest presentation is in early childhood, however, patients can present in late childhood or adulthood. Disease is more common in west, however, it exists in this part of world and is grossly under diagnosed or diagnosed very late.

Symptoms

Symptoms of Cystic Fibrosis most often point to multisystem involvement. Symptoms also vary according to age of onset of disease. Single system involvement is more common in late childhood or early adulthood. The most common symptoms include:

  • Intestinal blockage, mainly in new-borns (meconium ileus)

  • Severe constipation and repeated intestinal blockage

  • Foul smelling and greasy stools

  • Repeated episodes of abdominal pain due to Pancreatitis

  • Poor weight gain and growth

  • Rectal Prolapse

  • A constant cough that produces thick and copius sputum

  • Repeated chest and sinus infections with multiple organisms

  • Breathlessness,Wheezing and increasing exercise intolerance

  • Infertility in males and reduced fertility in females

  • Diabetes Mellitus

  • Multiple Vitamin Deficiency

  • Multiple fractures and skeletal deformities

Causes

Cystic fibrosis happens as an outcome of a defect in what is called the CFTR gene or ‘cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator’ gene. This gene is known to control the movement of salt and water in and out of the body’s cells. A sudden alteration, or change, in the gene, causes the mucus to become stickier and thicker than it should actually be. This abnormal mucus builds up in various organs throughout the body, including:

  • Lungs

  • Sinuses

  • Intestines

  • Liver

  • Pancreas

Many different faults can disturb the CFTR gene. The type of deficiency is connected to the severity of cystic fibrosis. The damaged gene is carry forwarded to the child from their parents. To have cystic fibrosis, a child is required to inherit one copy of the gene from the mother and father both. If they inherit one copy of the gene from just one parent, then they would not develop the disease. But, they will be a carrier of the defective gene, which means that they may pass the gene on to their own kids.

Treatment Options

CFTR modulators are a class of drugs that have a role in reducing rapidity of progression of the disease to a great extent if introduced early in life. It is possible for specific treatments to help in controlling the symptoms, preventing or reducing complications, and making the illness easier to live with. An individual with cystic fibrosis is usually supported by a team of healthcare professionals at a specialist cystic fibrosis centre. A care plan is drawn up that is tailored according to their personal needs. A variety of treatments are used, and often treatment in hospital is required. Regular appointments to monitor the illness is also recommended.

  1. Medications for Lung Problems - An individual with CF needs combination of medications for sino pulmonary infections, clearance and thinning of secretions and improvement in wheezing.

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques - In addition to medication, specific methods are extremely important to keep the sinuses, airways and lungs clear. Physiotherapist plays a very important role in guiding and assisting patient in airways clearing techniques and also in improving effort tolerance.

  3. Dietary and Nutritional Advice - For patients with cystic fibrosis, getting a healthy diet and right nutrition with vitamin supplements keeping malabsorption in mind is crucial in helping them develop normally and preventing them from becoming repeatedly ill. Also, prevention of constipation is very important. All these need a trained nutritionist counseling.

  4. Infertility - Counselling for male infertility and reduced fertility in females helps couples to have successful pregnancy.

  5. Lung Transplants - In advanced lung disease with Cystic Fibrosis Lung Transplant is an important option with good results.

COMMON COLD

Common cold generally causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. Some people may also experience a sore throat, cough, headache, or other symptoms. Symptoms generally start about 2 or 3 days after you come in contact with the virus, although it could take up to a week.


 

Signs & Symptoms

Cold symptoms generally start about 2 or 3 days after you come in contact with the virus, although it could take up to a week. The most common cold symptoms are:

  • Nasal Congestion

  • Runny nose

  • Scratchy throat

  • Sneezing

  • Cough

  • Muscle aches

  • Postnasal drip

  • Sore throat

Causes

Children are most susceptible to common cold and may get cold many times a year. Parents often get cold from their children. You can catch a cold if:

  • A person with a cold sneezes, coughs, or blows its nose near you

  • You touch your nose, eyes, or mouth after you have touched something contaminated by the virus such as a doorknob

 

Treatment Options

The very first thing one should do is to get plenty of rest and drink plenty of fluids.

Over-the-counter cold and cough medicines may help ease symptoms in adults and older children. They do not make your cold go away faster, but can help you feel better. However, these medicines are not recommended for children under 6.

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